OLSR Fuzzy Cost (OLSR-FC): an extension to OLSR protocol based on fuzzy logic and applied to avoid selfish nodes

Diógenes Antonio Marques José, Renato F. Bulcão-Neto, Vinícius Sebba Patto, Iwens Gervásio Sene Júnior

Abstract


The mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET) are those whose nodes have mobility, energy restriction and operate simultaneously as end systems and router. One of the main problems found in MANETs is the occurrence of selfish nodes, which are those that refuse to route packets for other nodes. To address the issue of selfish nodes in MANETs and improve the flow of traffic in these networks, this paper proposes an extension to the OLSR protocol, based on Fuzzy logic, called OLSR Fuzzy Cost (OLSR -FC). Using the NS-2 simulator, the OLSR-FC proposal was compared to other extensions of OLSR protocol (e.g., OLSR-ETX, OLSR-ML e OLSR-MD) concerning the performance metrics: packet loss, end-to-end delay, Jitter, power consumption, routing overhead and throughput. The results showed that OLSR-FC obtains better performance than the evaluated extensions, avoiding selfish nodes and selecting routes whose links have little packet losses.


Keywords


MANETS; Selfish Nodes; Routing; OLSR; Fuzzy Logic

Full Text:

PDF

References


SINGH SUDHA, D. K. S.; MONDAL, M. S. Potential Area of Research in MANET In Technological Advancements and Applications in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks: Research Trends. 1. ed. India: Kamaljit I. Lakhtaria, 2012. v. 1.

BOUKERCHE, A. et al. Routing protocols in ad hoc networks: A survey. Comput. Netw., v. 55, n. 13, p. 3032 – 3080, 2011.

GE, Y.; KUNZ, T.; LAMONT, L. Quality of service routing in ad-hoc networks using olsr. In: . Big Island, HI, USA: IEEE, 2003. (HICSS, v. 36), p. 9 pp.–.

KOTHARI, R.; DEMBLA, D. Implementation of black hole security attack using malicious node for enhanced - dsr routing protocol of manet. Int. J. Comput. Appl. N. Y. USA, v. 64, n. 18, p. 1–8, 2 2013.

ZAYANI, M.; ZEGHLACHE, D. Cooperation enforcement for packet forwarding optimization in multi-hop ad-hoc networks. In: . Shanghai, China: IEEE, 2012. (WCNC, ’12), p. 1915–1920.

BUTTYAN, L.; HUBAUX, J.-P. Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks: Thwarting Malicious and Selfish Behavior in the Age of Ubiquitous Computing. 1. ed. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2007. v. 1.

WANKHADE, S. V. 1. Int. J. Adv. Res. Comput. Eng. Technol. (IJARCET), v. 1, n. 1, p. 1–5, 7 2012.

ROBERT, J.-M.; OTROK, H.; CHRIQI, A. Rbc-olsr: Reputation-based clustering olsr protocol for wireless ad hoc networks. Comput. Commun., v. 35, n. 4, p. 487 – 499, 2012.

TOH, C. K. et al. The controversy of selfish nodes in ad hoc networks. In: . Phoenix Park, South Korea: IEEE, 2010. (ICACT ’10, v. 2), p. 1087–1092.

CHARILAS, D. E.; GEORGILAKIS, K. D.; PANAGOPOULOS, A. D. Icarus: hybrid incentive mechanism for cooperation stimulation in ad hoc networks. Ad Hoc Netw., v. 10, n. 6, p. 976 – 989, 2012.

ZADEH, L. A. Fuzzy sets*. Inf. Control, v. 8, n. 3, p. 338–353, 1965.

CLAUSEN, T. H.; JACQUET, P. RFC 3626 OLSR - Optimized Link State Routing Protocol. Reston, USA: The Internet Society, 2003.

FOUNDATION, N. S. VINT Project. The Network Simulator - ns-2. 2009. Disponível em: .

COUTO, D. S. J. D. et al. A high-throughput path metric for multi-hop wireless routing. In: . San Diego, CA, USA: ACM, 2003. (MobiCom, ’03), p. 134–146.

PASSOS, D. et al. Mesh network performance measurements. In: . Cuiabá, MT - Brazil: I2TS, 2006. (I2TS, v. 5th), p. 1–8.

CORDEIRO, W. et al. Providing quality of service for mesh networks using link delay measurements. In: . Honolulu, HI, USA: IEEE, 2007. (ICCCN, ’07), p. 991–996.

BABAKHOUYA, A.; CHALLAL, Y.; BOUABDAL- LAH, A. A simulation analysis of routing misbehaviour in mobile ad hoc networks. In: . Cardiff, UK: IEEE, 2008. v. 1, p. 592–597.

YOKOYAMA, S. et al. Evaluation of the impact of selfish nodes in ad hoc networks and detection and countermeasure methods. In: . Nara, Japan: IEEE, 2006. (MDM, ’06), p. 95–95.

GOMES, R. L. et al. Using fuzzy link cost and dynamic choice of link quality metrics to achieve qos and qoe in wireless mesh networks. J. Netw. Comput. Appl., v. 34, n. 2, p. 506 – 516, 2011.

SANTHI, G.; NACHIAPPAN, A. Fuzzy-cost based multiconstrained qos routing with mobility prediction in manets. Egypt. Inform. J. - Elsevier, v. 13, n. 1, p. 19–25, 1 2012.

LETICHEVSKY, A. C.; VELLASCO, M. M. B. R.; TANDESCHEIT, R. Um sistema fuzzy de suporte à decisão para meta-avaliação uma nova abordagem e um estudo de caso desenvolvidos no brasil. Am. Eval. Assoc. Conf.: Conseq. Eval. Portland Or. U. S., v. 15, n. 56, p. 447–462, 7 2006.

ROSS, T. J. Fuzzy Logic With Engineering Applications. 3th. ed. USA: Jhon Wiley & Sons ltd., 2010. v. 1.

ZHAO, J.; BOSE, B. K. Evaluation of membership functions for fuzzy logic controlled induction motor drive. In: . Sevilla, Spain: IEEE, 2002. (IECON, vol.1), p. 229–234.

REZENDE, S. O. Sistemas Inteligentes: Fundamentos e Aplicações. 1. ed. Barueri, SP: Editora Manole Ltda, 2003. v.1.

SNIEDOVIC, M. Dijkstra’s algorithm revisited: the dynamic programming connexion. J. Control Cybern., v. 35, n. 3, p. 599 – 620, 2006.

LEóN, P. et al. Fuzzy controller developed in a plc, based on weighted average method. In: . Santiago, Chile: IEEE, 2015. (CHILECON, ’015), p. 55–60.

HYYTIä, E. Random Waypoint Model. 1. ed. Helsinki, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology, 2005. v. 1.

SALLEH, A. U. et al. Trace analyzer for ns-2. In: . Selangor, Malaysia: IEEE, 2006. (SCOReD, ’06), p. 29–32.

CHADDA, A. Quality of Service Testing Methodology. Tese (Doutorado), New Hampshire, USA, 2004.

CUNHA, D. de O.; COSTA, L. H. M. K.; DUARTE, O. C. M. B. Uma análise do consumo de energia em redes ad-hoc. In: . Santa Rita do Sapucaí - MG - Brasil: INATEL, 2004. v. 7, p. 39–47.

ISSARAIYAKUL, T.; HOSSAIN, E. Network Simulator 2 Ultimate: Post processing throughput calculation. 2. ed. New york, USA: Springer, 2009. v. 1.

JACQUET, P. et al. Optimized Link State Routing Protocol. Reston, USA: The Internet Society, 2001.

CAREY, M. F. Connectivity, throughput, and end-to-end latency in infrastructureless wireless networks with beamforming-enabled devices. Tese (Doutorado), USA, 2011.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22456/2175-2745.86380

Copyright (c) 2019 Diógenes Antonio Marques José

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Indexing databases:
        

Acknowledgments: