Os estudos sociais da quantificação e suas implicações na sociologia / Social studies of quantification and its implications in sociology

Autores

  • Alexandre de Paiva Rio Camargo Universidade Candido Mendes http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5720-7369
  • Claudia Jorgelina Daniel Centro de Investigaciones Sociales, IDES - CONICET

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.1590/15174522-109768

Palavras-chave:

sociologia da quantificação, história da estatística, governo dos números, política de população, categorias de classificação

Resumo

Este trabalho tem um duplo propósito: por um lado, apresentar a relevância, abrangência e profundidade dos estudos históricos e sociológicos sobre a quantificação; de outro, reconstruir as origens deste campo e as transformações por ele conhecidas ao longo dos últimos anos. Nesse percurso, interessa-nos destacar os vínculos entre os trabalhos que analisaram os processos de raciocinar, valorar, medir e comparar com números e as preocupações clássicas e contemporâneas da sociologia. Com este objetivo, o presente artigo oferece uma ampla revisão da literatura do campo, buscando despertar o interesse da comunidade de cientistas sociais por suas potencialidades heurísticas. Ao mesmo tempo, procura-se compilar as contribuições dos estudos sociais da quantificação à sociologia como um todo. A primeira seção apresenta um relato histórico sobre a formação desta perspectiva de análise, suas principais obras de referência e aportes mais significativos. A segunda seção discute as razões pelas quais entendemos que a sociologia deveria ampliar sua atenção para as operações e os regimes de quantificação nas sociedades contemporâneas. Além disso, examina as contribuições que o campo tem a oferecer para a reflexão sobre as questões nodais da disciplina, como o problema dos fundamentos da ordem social e da autoridade política, os processos de diferenciação social e configuração de subjetividades, a participação social, a crítica e a agência social transformadora.

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Abstract

This article has a dual purpose: on the one hand, it seeks to present the relevance, scope, and depth of historical and sociological approaches on quantification; on the other, it seeks to reconstruct the origins of this field and its changes over the past few years. Thus, we emphasize the links between the works that analyzed the processes of reasoning, valuing, measuring, and comparing through numbers and sociology’s main classical and contemporary concerns. As such, this article offers a broad review of the literature in the field, seeking to arouse the interest of the community of social scientists for its heuristic potential. At the same time, it seeks to compile the contributions of the social studies of quantification to sociology as a whole. The first section presents a historical account of the formation of this analytical perspective, its main references and most significant contributions. The second section discusses the reasons why we believe sociology should extend its attention to the regimes of quantification in contemporary societies. In addition, it addresses the contributions of the field for the advancement of nodal issues, such as the problem of the foundations of social order and political authority, the processes of social differentiation, and the making of subjects, social engagement, criticism, and social change.

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Biografia do Autor

Alexandre de Paiva Rio Camargo, Universidade Candido Mendes

Doutor em Sociologia pelo Instituto de Estudos Sociais e Políticos da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IESP/UERJ), professor adjunto do Instituto Universitário de Pesquisas do Rio de Janeiro da Universidade Candido Mendes (IUPERJ-UCAM), onde atua no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Sociologia Política e como coordenador da especialização em História e Ciências Sociais: dilemas do tempo presente.

Claudia Jorgelina Daniel, Centro de Investigaciones Sociales, IDES - CONICET

Dra. en Ciencias Sociales (Universidad de Buenos Aires), 

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Publicado

2021-04-28

Como Citar

CAMARGO, A. de P. R.; DANIEL, C. J. Os estudos sociais da quantificação e suas implicações na sociologia / Social studies of quantification and its implications in sociology. Sociologias, [S. l.], v. 23, n. 56, p. 42–81, 2021. DOI: 10.1590/15174522-109768. Disponível em: https://www.seer.ufrgs.br/index.php/sociologias/article/view/109768. Acesso em: 8 dez. 2022.